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   This group is the most common and tends to be the most popular. All of the drugs within this group share a similar structure. The most common and oldest racetam is Piracetam as it was the first discovered, having a long and trusted history. Piracetam, along with Pramiracetam, Oxiracetam, and Aniracetam, all are composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen.
   This group is known to improve memory, focus, mood, learning abilities, and improve energy levels. Most work with the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine, while others improve the re-uptake of glutamate. Acetylcholine is crucial, as it aids in the signals sent across synapses.

   Racetams are also known to be neuroprotective. This means that they can increase the rate of cell regrowth, as well as decrease the rate of deterioration. This group of nootropics are common and widely used. If you were too take nootropics in a stack, racetams are generally included.


Choline is naturally found in our bodies, yet most people are deficient. It is a water-soluble nutrient that is essential for brain function and health. It is a precursor to acetylcholine, which is one of the most common methods of action regarding nootropics.Choline supplements have the ability to positively affect cognition on there own. They have shown positive results regarding both memory and learning. Without choline, acetylcholine will not be synthesized. Since racetams stimulate acetylcholine receptor sites, its vital that there’s enough acetylcholine available.

Vitamin B Derivatives

This is a fairly limited group, but important nonetheless. These nootropics have been derived from B Vitamins, mimicking beneficial effects. Sulbutiamine falls into this category, as it is a derivative of Thiamine which is Vitamin B1. It was first synthesized in Japan, following a large portion of the population becoming deficient in Thiamine. This was due to the high rice diet being consumed. It is commonly used to treated low energy levels and fatigue, while making users more alert. Sulbutiamine is also noted for improving memory, as it affects choline, glutamate, and dopamine. It has been used to help treat degenerative cognitive disorders, such as Alzheimer’s.


There a number of peptide nootropics on the market, but the most common is Noopept. Noopept is actually closely related to the racetam family, but is said to be 1000 times more potent than Piracetam. It is extremely effective at crossing the blood-brain barrier, with a high bioavailability. 

Noopept has an effect on both glutamate and acetylcholine, this is where it shows similarities to racetams. It is known to improve learning capabilities, memory, motivation, brain energy, and increases levels of alertness.


These supplements tend to be newer in comparison to other nootropics, but are known to be some of the strongest. They’re known to have a direct affect on glutamate receptors, increasing levels of glutamate.Glutamate is crucial regarding learning and memory, as it plays a role in synaptic plasticity. These supplements are known to yield positive effects, without the side-effects associated with other substances like caffeine. There is a slight overlap with some racetams, as they can stimulate glutamate receptors. However. the stimulation achieved through ampakines is more greater. Sunifiram for instance is much more potent than Piracetam.


These supplements are nootropics that are natural or herbal in nature. This means that they are plant-based, yielding natural benefits. They have been shown to increase brain health as well as its ability function.These supplements are obviously highly safe, but tend to be less effective than synthetic nootropics. Some of the best natural nootropics on the market are; Valorcine, Ginkgo Biloba, and Bacopa Monneri. Gingko Biloba for instance, is used as a memory and concentration enhancer. It is also being used in the treatment of dementia and Alzheimer’s.

Smart Drugs:

Nootropics are generally called ‘smart drugs’ and smart drugs are often mistaken for nootropics. The truth is, these substances are not entirely considered nootropics. Some of these supplements are stimulants, which means that they’re not technically nootropics.
However, there are some supplements that do border nootropics, yielding similar benefits. Modafinil for instance is used to treat chronic fatigue. It is thought to increase the neurotransmitter hyprocretin, which boosts levels of energy and motivation.